History of the WWII Collections
Our Director, David Cohen, originally established the War Crimes Studies Center (WCSC) to support his work collecting and analyzing a vast body of generally overlooked post-World War II war crimes trial records scattered across Europe, East Asia, and the South Pacific. At the time he began this research, most people had heard of the proceedings at the International Military Tribunal for Nuremberg, but few in the academic or legal community knew much, if anything, about the vast body of WWII-era international legal precedent from national war crimes programs that Cohen was studying.
With the support of the Volkswagen Foundation, the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History, the Wang Family Foundation, and the University of California at Berkeley, the Center began collecting and negotiating access to trial records from across the European and Pacific theater countries in which WWII was fought. To date, Cohen and his staff, along with teams of graduate student researchers and undergraduate interns, have collected thousands of previously inaccessible (and sometimes classified) war crimes trial records from WWII proceedings involving Japanese and German defendants across the Pacific and European theaters. These trials were conducted by more than twenty countries in Europe, Asia, and the South Pacific. The Center's collections include proceedings that took place in China, the Netherlands, Italy, Great Britain, France, Australia, the United States, and the Philippines. Most of the trial records in our holdings have never before been reproduced, and for this reason have scarcely been accessible to researchers and practitioners. The collections include copies of some case files that remain under seal in the countries where the trials took place, but which we have obtained through the cooperation of other archival sources. In light of the number of new tribunals that have been founded around the world since the 1990s to prosecute international crimes, and because so many of the original documents are in danger of deterioration, our work is both urgent and timely. We are dedicated to preserving these records for posterity and making them accessible to scholars and practitioners who may use find the archive to be a valuable reference tool.
WWII Pacific Theater Document Archive
The Center serves as the sole repository in North America for over one million microfilmed pages of records of WWII era trials of Japanese war criminals. These national-level trials of Japanese were held by several different countries, including the U.S., China, Britain and Australia; and in many different locations, including Japan, Singapore, the Philippines, and China. The Center also houses records of U.S. Navy Trials and Australian Trials. Information on these records is not online at this time, but the microfilm reels are available for research use. The Center recently transferred the physical microfilm reels to the Stanford University Libraries, which will make the materials available to researchers in the microfilm reading room at Green Library. Since the Center's founding, researchers and students have collaborated to develop navigation guides, case listings, trial synopses, and detailed analyses of key cases to make the documents from these microfilm reels more widely accessible to the public.
Our researchers have, in collaboration with the National Archives of Japan in Tokyo, worked to locate and reproduce trial records of Japanese war criminals after WWII.
The Center has collaborated with a variety of individuals and institutions in Singapore on an ambitious project focusing on the war crimes trials held there in the aftermath of WWII. This project included documentation, an oral history of the trials, doctoral research, publication of trial records, and a conference and public exhibition. Our partners included the National University of Singapore (ProfessorsTan Tay Yeong and Kwa Chong Guan), The National Heritage Board (Professor Kevin Tan and Lily Tan), and the National Archives of Singapore.
In collaboration with the Australian National Archives and our partner center at the University of Marburg, we digitzed all of the case files and many other documents from the Australian War Crimes Program (1945-1951). In collaboration with the English National Archives (PRO) and Marburg, we are pursuing the digitization of all of the more than three hundred British trials involving Japanese accused of war crimes.
The records of the several hundred Chinese trials involving Japanese defendants are still sealed in the archives of the People's Republic of China. Our ongoing acquisition program has succeeded in acquiring a substantial amount of trial records from other archival sources in Japan, Taiwan, and the United State.
WWII European Theater Document Archive
The collection of microfilm recently transferred from Center to SUL contains substantial records from the European Theater and particularly the major program of trials conducted at Dachau by the US Army. The confrontation with the past in divided Germany after 1945 presents one of the most complex cases of transitional justice in the postwar period. There is first the fact that, at least until 1951, the reckoning with past injustice was for the most part imposed, guided, or supervised by outside conquering powers rather than by internal forces which had overthrown the previous regime. Second, the occupying powers exercised their authority in four separate occupation zones, each with its own administration and political goals, as well as its own approach to coming to terms with the Nazi era. The Center has collaborated for over a decade with the University of Marburg, Germany, to compile information on the post-WWII war crimes trials in Europe.